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I

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOL. 66

'EVERY MAN IS A VALUABLE MEMBER OF SOCIETY WHO, BY HIS OBSERVATIONS, RESEARCHI AND EXPERIMENTS, PROCURES KNOWLEDGE FOR MEN"— SMITHSON

(Publication 2478)

CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

1917

U Bor5 (gafttmore (pttee

BALTIMORE, MD., U. S. A.

ADVERTISEMENT

The present series, entitled " Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collec- tions," is intended to embrace all the octavo publications of the Insti- tution, except the Annual Report. Its scope is not limited, and the volumes thus far issued relate to nearly every branch of science. Among- these various subjects zoology, bibliography, geology, mineralogy, and anthropology have predominated.

The Institution also publishes a quarto series entitled " Smith- sonian Contributions to Knowledge." It consists of memoirs based on extended original investigations, which have resulted in important additions to knowledge.

CHARLES D. WALCOTT, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.

(Hi)

CONTENTS

1. HoLLiSTER, N. Descriptions of a new genus and eight new species

and subspecies of African mammals. February lo, 1916. 8 pp. (Publication number 2406.)

2. Hersey, F. Seymour. A list of the birds observed in Alaska

and Northeastern Siberia during the summer of 1914. March 27, 1916. 33 pp. (Pub. no. 2408.)

3. Explorations and field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in

1915. May 27, 1916. 119 pp. (Pub. no. 2407.)

4. ScHULLER, Rudolf. The Ordaz and Dortal expeditions in search

of El Dorado, as described on sixteenth century maps. April 26, 1916. 15 pp., 2 maps. (Pub. no. 241 1.)

5. Abbot, C. G., Fowle, F. E. and Aldrich, L. B. On the dis-

tribution of radiation over the sun's disk and new evidences of the solar variability. May 23, 1916. 24 pp., i pi. (Pub. no. 2412.)

6. Phonetic transcription of Indian languages. Report of com-

mittee of American Anthropological Association. September 20,1916. 15 pp. (Pub. no. 2415.)

7. Abbot, C. G. and Aldrich, L. B. The pyranometer an instru-

ment for measuring sky radiation. May 23, 1916. 9 pp. (Pub. no. 2417.)

8. HoLLiSTER, N. Three new African shrews of the genus Croci-

dura. May 23, 1916. 3 pp. (Pub. no. 2418.)

9. Christensen, Carl. Maxonia, a new genus of tropical Ameri-

can ferns. September 30, 1916. 4 pp. (Pub. no, 2424.)

10. HoLLiSTER, N. Three new murine rodents from Africa. October

26,1916. 3 pp. (Pub. no. 2426.)

11. Abbot, C. G. and Aldrich, L. B. On the use of the pyranometer.

November 6, 1916. 9 pp. (Pub. no. 2427.)

12. Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. Bones of mammals from Indian sites in

Cuba and Santo Domingo. December 7, 1916. 10 pp., i pi. (Pub. no. 2429.)

13. Miller, Gerrit S., Jr. The teeth of a monkey found in Cuba.

December 8, 1916. 3 pp., i pi. (Pub. no. 2430.)

14. Means, Philip Ainsworth. Preliminary survey of the remains

of the Chippewa settlements on La Pointe Island, Wisconsin. January 4, 1917. 15 pp. (Pub. no. 2433.)

(v)

vi CONTENTS

15. Riley, J. H. Three remarkable new species of birds from Santo

Domingo. December i, 1916. 2 pp. (Pub. no^. 2435.)

16. VON NiESSL, G. The determination of meteor-orbits in the solar

system. (Authorized translation by Cleveland Abbe.) April 23,1917- 35 PP- (Pub. no. 2436.)

17. Explorations and field-work of the Smithsonian Institution in

1916. April 26, 1917. 134 pp. (Pub. no. 2438.)

18. Gilbert, C. H. On the occurrence of Benthodesmus Atlanticus

Goode and Bean on the coast of British Columbia. February 21, 191 7. 2 pp. (Pub. no. 2439.)

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOLUME 66, NUMBER i

DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW. GENUS AND

EIGHT NEW SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES

OF AFRICAN MAMMALS

BY N. HOLLISTER

(Publication 2406)

CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

FEBRUARY 10, 1916

Z?)t Botl> Q0aftttnor« (prcce

UALTlJlUUli, MD., U. S. A.

DESCRIPTIONS OF A NEW GENUS AND EIGHT NEW

SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES OF AFRICAN MAMMALS

By N. HOLLISTER

The new East African mammals herewith described were collected by members of the Smithsonian African Expedition, 1909-1910, and of the Rainey African Expedition, 1911-1912.

SURDISOREX POLULUS, sp. nov.

Type from west side of Mount Kenia, British East Africa, at 10,700 feet altitude. United States National Museum No. 163992, skin and skull of adult male (teeth moderately worn). Collected September 30, 1909, by J. A. Loring. Orig. No. 7562.

Description. Like Surdisorex norce Thomas, but smaller, with smaller skull and teeth ; hind foot larger. Color indistinguishable from that oi S. nor a. Upper unicuspid teeth all smaller than in 5". norcc, the first and third especially small and the first conspicuously narrow.

Measurements. Type, compared with average measurements of seven adults of 6^. norce from the Aberdare Range, the latter in parentheses : Head and body, 92 (100) mm. ; tail vertebrae, 30 (33) ; hind foot, 17 (15.6). Skull: Condylobasal length, 24.5 (25.2); zygomatic breadth, 6.8 (7.3) ; breadth of braincase, 12.5 (13.4) ; mandible, 14.4 (14.6) ; upper tooth row, entire (alveoli), 10.6 (ii.i) ; lower tooth row, entire (alveoli), 9.6 (lo.i).

Specimens examined. Thirty-five from Mount Kenia. These have been compared with a series of nine specimens of Surdisorex norce from the Aberdare Range. There is in no case any doubt as to which form any specimen in this series belongs. The two lots are readily separated by the characters of the unicuspid teeth.

CERCOCTENUS, gen. nov.

(MACROSCELID.E.)

Type species.- Petrodronius sultan Thomas.

Characters. Like Petrodromiis but tail thinly haired and with irregular rows of long, stiff, club-like bristles along under side ; fingers longer. Skull without the large posterior palatine vacuities,

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 66, No. 1

2 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANUOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

which in Pctrodrornus extend from near the plane of the anterior border of pni^, in palatine plate of maxillae, to line of center of w^ in the palatines. Teeth in general as in Petrodromfis, but pm^ ap- parently always a simple hooked cone, without small posterior spikelet as in Petrodromus; and pni^ more complex, deeply grooved on outer side, and distinctly f our-cusped.

The forms included in the genus are Cercoctenus sultan (Thomas) , CeYcoctenus sultan sangi (Heller) , and Cercoctenus schivanni (Thomas and Wroughton).

RHINOLOPHUS KENIENSIS, sp. nov.

Type from west side of Mount Kenia, British East Africa, at 7,000 feet altitude. United States National Museum No. 166352, adult male in alcohol with skull removed. Collected x\ugust 27, 1909, by Edmund Heller. Orig. No. 11 54.

Description. A small member of the Rhinolophus augur group, differing from R. a. sainbesiensis in the small size of the nose-leaf (greatest width of horse-shoe, 6.8; compared with 8.0-8.3 in sam- besiensis), shorter forearm, and shorter tibia. Skull somewhat larger, with slightly more robust teeth, than in cambesiensis.

Measurements of type. Forearm, 52 mm.; tibia, 21; greatest length of ear from anterior margin, 18.9 ; greatest width of ear, 12.2 ; third finger metacarpal, 34.8; first phalanx, 17.4; fourth metacarpal, 39.5; first phalanx, 11. 3; fifth metacarpal, 40.3; first phalanx, 12.8. Skull : Greatest length, 22.8 ; condylobasal length, 20.4 ; zygomatic breadth, 12; postorbital constriction, 3; mastoid breadth, 10.7; man- dible, 15. Teeth: Canine to m^, 8.6; breadth across upper canines, 6.6 ; greatest breadth across upper last molars, 8.4 ; lower canine to W3, 9.

Remarks. This new bat is readily separable from all the other species of Rhinolophus known from British East Africa by the combination of narrow horse-shoe, hairless sella, and position of small upper premolar entirely without the tooth row. It is doubtless a northern representative of R. augur, and perhaps it intergrades directly into R. a. sambcsiensis. Doctor Lonnberg and Mr. Oldfield Thomas have recorded R. a. sambcsiensis from Kilimanjaro, ^ but I am not aware that a member of the group has up to now been noted in British East Africa. *

Specimen examined. One, the type.

^Lonnberg, Wiss. Erg. Schwedischen Zool. Exp. Kilimandjaro, Mamm., pp. 8-10, 1908; Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 8, Vol. ti, p. 315, March, 1913.

NO. I NEW AFRICAN MAMMALS HOLLISTER 3

EPTESICUS UGANDJE, sp. nov.

Type from Ledgus, Uganda. United States National Museum No. 166520, adult female in alcohol (skull removed). Collected February 15, 1910, by J. Alden Loring. Orig. No. 9022.

Description. A small brown species related to Eptesicus capensis somaliciis (Thomas), but with larger, flatter skull. Ears broad, somewhat evenly triangular, with rounded tip ; when laid forward reaching to tip of muzzle. Tragus comparatively long, broadest at center, the tip bluntly rounded and not turned forward ; inner side nearly straight for two-thirds its length ; outer side evenly convex from tip to opposite anterior notch, where there is a small sharp lobe, beneath which is a sharply concave margin and a larger tri- angular basal lobe, immediately above the outer notch. Wing from base of toes ; tail vertebrre entirely within the interfemoral membrane, but a small fleshy tip extending very slightly beyond ; postcalcaneal lobe comparatively small, sharply emarginate anteriorly and evenly sloping posteriorly. Hair extending only slightly on to wings but thinly covering the interfemoral membrane to line of ankles and. along tail, to slightly beyond. Color (from alcoholic specimens) apparently much as in souialicus but somewhat darker throughout ; wings dark grayish brown, faintly lined along posterior edges with bufit'y ; interfemoral membrane slightly lighter than wings. Skull decidedly larger than in souialicus (as represented by specimens from the Northern Guaso Nyiro) with relatively and actually broader rostrum and braincase, and relatively much lower sinciput. Upper inner incisors broad and heavy, distinctly bifurcate at tip (except in a much worn specimen) ; outer upper incisors small, barely reaching beyond cingulum of inner incisors. Lower incisors all trifid, con- siderably crowded in the row. Cheek teeth essentially as in somaliciis but slightly more robust.

Measurejnents. Type : Forearm, 29.6 mm. ; outer height ear, 12.3; greatest breadth ear, 8.1 ; tragus from outer notch, 5.4; third finger metacarpal, 26.8 ; first phalanx, 10.3 ; fourth finger metacarpal, 27.7 ; first phalanx, 9.2 ; fifth finger metacarpal, 28.1 ; first phalanx, "/.^f', tibia and foot, including claws, 16. Skull: Greatest length, 12.8; condylobasal length, 11.8; breadth of braincase, 6.8; depth of braincase, 4.6 ; mastoid breadth, 7.3 ; postorbital constriction, 3.5 ; mandible, 8.8. Teeth : Upper maxillary row, 4.3 ; breadth across upper canines, 3.9 ; entire lower row, 5.8.

Remarks. In addition to other characters, this species may readily be separated from the other small forms of Eptesicus known in East

4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

Africa by its dark-colored wing membranes [distinguishing from tenuipinnis, rendalli, and phas^na], short outer upper incisors [dis- tinguishing from grandidieri], large, flattened skull,* and distinctly bifurcate inner upper incisors [distinguishing from somalicus]. In addition to the type there are two topotypes and three other specimens from Gondokoro in the collection.

CHiEREPEON PUMILUS NAIVASH^, subsp. nov.

Type from Naivasha Station, British East Africa. United States National Museum No. 166658, male, in alcohol, with skull removed. Collected August 7, 1909, by J. Alden Loring. Orig. No. 6955.

Description. Lik^ Chcvrephon pumiliis pumilus Cretzschmar, but larger, with longer fv rearm and larger skull ; color averaging some- what darker.

Measurements. Type, compared with adult male of true pumilus from Saaita, Eritrea (number 143166), measurements of the latter in parentheses: Forearm, 42 (38) mm.; skull, condylobasal length, 16.0 (15.4) ; zygomatic breadth, 10.8 (10.4) ; interorbital constriction, 4.0 (3.6) ; mastoid breadth, 9.9 (9.2) ; mandible, 11. 7 (11.8) ; maxil- lary tooth row, including canine, 6.3 (6.2) ; entire lower tooth rov.^ 7.3 (7.0). Average of length of forearm in fifteen adults of naivashce, 40.3 ; in eighteen adults of pmnilus from Eritrea, Sudan, and Northern Uganda, 36.5.

GENETTA PUMILA, sp. nov.

Type from Mount Gargues (North Creek, at 6,000 feet), British East Africa. United States National Museum No. 182704, skin and skull of adult male (basal suture closed). Collected September i, 1911, by Edmund Heller. Orig. No. 4193.

Description. Like Genetta stuhlmanni Matschie, but much smaller, with smaller skull and teeth. Color as in the paler specimens ot stuhlmanni which approach somewhat the characteristic coloration of G. erlangeri Matschie. Ground color of body bufif or cream-buff with a grayish tinge ; dorsal stripe blackish ; large spots along dorsal stripe reddish brown ; smaller spots on hips and flanks seal-brown or blackish ; outer shoulder stripes, from crown to arms, sharply marked, the three inner stripes to withers much less distinct ; crown reddish brown, a narrow stripe of same color extending to the (Tuller brown of nose ; sides of face sharply marked by buffy white patch between eye and lips ; upper lips whitish ; fore and Hind feet buffy above, the hind feet dark brown below. Chin and throat grayish buff' ;

NO. I NEW AFRICAN MAMMALS HOLLISTER 5

lower neck buffy, sparingly spotted with reddish brown ; iinderparts of body yellowish buff, the middle area spotted with dark brown, the lower belly unspotted. Tail with nine dark bands of reddish brown, those of mid-tail almost chestnut, and eight light bands of buff hairs with darker, pale reddish brown tips. Tip of tail broadly dark blackish brown.

Measurements of type. Head and body, 380 mm. ; tail vertebra?, 355 ; hind foot, 76 ; ear, 38. Skull and teeth : Condylobasal length, 75 ; zygomatic breadth, 38 ; mastoid breadth, 24.6 ; interorbital breadth, 10; lachrymal foramen to alveolar point, 23.3 ; mandible, 51 ; upper tooth row, including canine, 29.5; upper carnassial, 7.0x4.3; lower tooth row, including canine, 32.6.

Remarks. In a series of fifty specimens of genets of this group from British East Africa this specimen is remarkable for its very small size. Although the animal is an adult male, the skull is much smaller than skulls of considerably younger females of other species, and when compared with male skulls of stuhlmanni or erlangeri of equal age is actually diminutive. There is only a single specimen in the collection. A genet from the neighboring Mount Lololokwi is referred to Genetta stuhlmanni. It is somewhat younger than the type of pumila but has a much larger skull. There will be no difficulty in distinguishing, by size alone, either skins or skulls of this new form from other genets found in the same general region.

MUNGOS SANGUINEUS PARVIPES, subsp. nov.

Type from Kaimosi, British East Africa. United States National Museum No. 182739, skin and skull of adult male (basal and nasal sutures closed). Collected February 5, 1912, by Edmund Heller. Orig. No. 5601.

Description. Smaller than Mungos sanguineus ibece Wroughton and M. s. proteus' Thomas, with smaller hind foot and skull. Type, in blackish phase, darker, more blackish, than protcus; general color dull blackish, indistinctly marked with minute vermicula- tions of brownish, the sides of neck, sides of body, and middle of tail especially so marked ; head, nape, center of back, hands and feet, and terminal third of tail almost pure dull blackish ; underfur everywhere brownish black. A specimen in the grizzled phase is much like certain specimens of M. s. ibece in like coat, but is generally darker and richer colored, with more ochraceous than in any specimen of ibece in the National Museum collections ; under side of tail especially brighter ochraceous, the median line scarcely

6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

vermiculated and the black terminal third sharply marked ; hands and feet heavily grizzled. Skull like that of M . s. ibccc, but decidedly smaller ; teeth smaller.

Measurements of type. Compared with adult male of same age (with basal and nasal sutures closed) of Miingos sanguineus ibece from Kitanga, British East Africa, measurements of the latter in parentheses: Head and body, 305 (350) mm. ; tail vertebrae, 247 (325) ; hind foot, 54 (67) ; ear, 24 (— ) . Skull : Condylobasal length, 61.3 (65.1) ; zygomatic breadth, 30.9 (33.8) ; mastoid breadth, 23.2 (24.3) ; least postorbital constriction, 9.6 (10.9) ; breadth of rostrum over canine, 10.9 (11.9) ; length of mandible, 39.3 (42.2) ; maxillary tooth row, including canine, 21.7 (23.9) ; lower tooth row, including canine, 24.2 (26.5).

Remarks.- This form needs no special comparison with the Uganda forms described by Wroughton, M. s. ugandcc and M. s. galbus ; both are larger races and both have the hind feet unicolored ochraceous. Two specimens of the new Kavirondo form are in the collection, the type and an adult male from Lukosa River. The small size of the hind foot and skull readily distinguish them from speci- mens of the neighboring forms. The adult male skull is about the size of the female skulls of proteus and considerably smaller than any female skull in a series of specimens of ibece. Matschie has recently named several " species " of mungooses of this group from various localities in East Africa,* but none of his descriptions agrees with the specimens on which this new variety is based.

MUNGOS ALBICAUDUS DIALEUCOS, subsp. nov.

Type from Mount Lololokwi, British East Africa. United States National Museum No. 184794, skin and skull of adult male (basal and nasal sutures closed; teeth much worn). Collected September 18, 1911, by Edmund Heller.

Description, Like Miingos albicaudus ibeanus Thomas but lighter colored ; more grayish buff and silvery, less brownish buff and black- ish. Underfur and long hairs of sides of body especially paler, more silvery gray and very light buff ; sides of neck, cheeks, and muzzle grayer. Skull and teeth as in ibeanus, the lower molars showing no reduction in size as in the northern form, Miingos albicaudus leucuriis.

^ Sitz-ber. Ges. Nat. Freunde Berlin, 1914, pp. 435-457- December.

NO. I NEW AFRICAN MAMMALS HOLLISTER /

Measurements of type. Skull : Greatest length, 105 mm. ; condylo- basal length, 104; zygomatic breadth. 54; mastoid breadth, 37.1: postorbital constriction, 20.2 ; lireadth of rostrum over canine, 20.3 ; length of mandil)le, 69.5. Teeth of type and of a younger adult, male from the type locality in which the molars are less worn, measurements of the latter in parentheses : Upper row, including canine, 39.8 (40.8) ; lower row, including canine. 44.8 (45.8) ; last lower molar, 7.6x4.2 (7.7x4.5).

Remarks. This new subspecies of Mungos alhicaudus is based on three specimens from the type locality and an additional skin from Merelle Water, on the Marsabit Road. These four skins are all lighter colored than any skins of ibeanus in the collection, and when placed together the series as a whole is sharply differentiated from a suite of seventeen skins of ibeanus collected at points along the Uganda Railroad from Kavirondo to the coast.

HELOGALE UNDULATA AFFINIS, subsp. nov.

Type from summit of Mount Lololokwi. 6,000 feet, British East Africa. United States National Museum No. 182715, skin and skull of adult male (basal and nasal sutures closed). Collected September 2, 191 1, by Edmund Heller. Orig. No. 4296.

Description. Most like Helogale undidata rufiila Thomas, but smaller, with smaller teeth, and darker and richer colored. Color of whole pelage more heayily suffused with hazel and russet, the feet especially darker ( rich dark russet), the underfur everywhere darker, (dark cinnamon brown rather than ochraceous, or tawny brown) and the whole head and neck strongly washed with bright russet, much darker than in riifula. Underparts also considerably darker russet, almost " reddish " ; a stripe of rich tawny russet along under side of tail to tip. Hands and feet speckled like limbs to near bases of toes ; lower hands and toes clear rich dark russet.

Measurements of type. Head and body, 220 mm. ; tail vertebrc-e, 175; hind foot, 46; ear, 18. Skull: Condylobasal length, 49.7; zygomatic breadth, 29.6; mastoid breadth, 22.8; postorbital constric- tion, 9.2 ; breadth of rostrum over canine, 9.5 ; mandible, 33.8 ; maxillary tooth row, 16.5; upper carnassial, 3.9x4.0; lower molar- premolar row, 14.2.

Specimens examined. Two from the summit of Mount Lololowki and four from Rumathe Water. Northern Guaso Nyiro, British East Africa.

8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

Remarks. This new form differs from H. atkinsoni in its rich russet colored face and muzzle, longer tail, larger hind foot, and presence of a conspicuous internal cusp on pm ^. Front H. macmillani it is distinguished by longer tail and hind foot, the less finely speckled upperparts, the speckled upper half of the hand and foot, and the conspicuous russet stripe entire length of under side of tail. It needs no special comparison with Helogale hirtula ahlselli Lonnberg, which is found in the same general region.

SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS

VOLUME 66, NUMBER 2

A List of the Birds Observed in Alaska

and Northeastern Siberia During

the Summer of 1914

BY F, SEYMOUR HERSEY

(Publication 2408)

CITY OF WASHINGTON

PUBLISHED BY THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

1916

BALTIMORE, MD., U. «. A.

A LIST OF THE BIRDS OBSERVED IN ALASKA AND

NORTHEASTERN SIBERIA DURING

THE SUMMER OF 1914

By F. SEYMOUR HERSEY

During the summer of 191 4 the writer had the good fortune to make a rather extended trip along the Alaskan coast. Besides brief visits to one or two points in southern Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, stops of varying extent, but mostly of brief duration, were made at practically every village between the mouth of the Yukon River and Barrow, as well as several of the islands in Bering Sea and four points on the Siberian coast. The trip was made in the interest of Mr. A. C. Bent, to obtain data, and especially nesting photographs, for his work on the '' Life Histories of North American Birds."

We left Seattle May 12 on the Revenue Cutter Bear, and for four days steamed slowly northward through the narrow and often tor- tuous channels of the " Inside Passage." The scenery was delightful. Mountains, clothed with the luxuriant evergreen growth so char- acteristic of the northwest coast, rose abruptly from the water's edge, with here and there a loftier peak, capped with snow, towering above its neighbors. Wooded islands were sighted and left behind, and once or twice we passed a small steamer. Finally we dropped anchor at Ketchikan on the afternoon of May 16.

This part of the country is heavily wooded with great evergreens. Beneath the trees the partly decayed trunks of fallen trees are numer- ous ; these and the ground itself being covered with a heavy growth of green mosses, and everything dripping with moisture. Small birds did not appear to be plentiful, but our stay was too short to allow of any extended work. Northern Bald Eagles were common and we found one or two species here which were not seen at any other place.

We left Ketchikan that night and passed out through Dixon's Entrance, heading for Unalaska. Although the weather was fine, a heavy swell caused us to roll badly. Soon after leaving the land behind, I began to notice various members of the Tubinares. These became more abundant as we neared the " pass." Sooty Shearwaters

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol 66 No. 2

2 - SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

were the most common, with Fork-tailed Petrels next. Leach's and Fisher's Petrels were often seen, and several Black-footed Albatrosses followed us until we neared land, when they disappfiared.

As we approached Unimak Pass the number of birds increased to a point almost beyond belief. As far as the eye could see great masses of birds were bedded on the water. California (and perhaps Pallas's) Murres and Tufted Puffins were everywhere, with a smaller propor- tion of Horned Puffins. As we steamed through the pass, they swam or fluttered to one side barely clearing the sides of the vessel. Ahead of us great clouds of Sooty Shearwaters rose, and flying a short distance, again settled on the water. It was utterly impossible to form any definite estimate of the number of birds seen. " Hun- dreds of thousands " does not exaggerate their abundance. We were several hours in going through the pass and it was not until we reached Unalaska in the evening, that we saw the last of this vast number of birds.

We planned to spend two days at Unalaska but a bad storm kept us there a third. The time was profitably spent collecting the various species peculiar to this locality.

Our next stops were at St. George and St. Paul Islands, but we did not land. Crested, Paroquet, and Least Auklets, and Rodger's Ful- mars, were about the ship during our brief stays here.

Nome was our next port, which we reached on June i. I shall long remember the novelty of this day's experiences. Early in the morning we sighted ice and the day was spent laboriously forcing our way through it. We finally anchored to the ice a little way ofif shore about 10.30 p. m., and dog teams came out from the town and took off the mail. During the day we had been within sight of the steamer Corwin formerly a revenue cutter, but now owned and operated by a Seattle steamship company and just before midnight she steamed in and anchored near us. Her passengers were landed on the ice and transferred by dog team to the shore. The long Arctic day was drawing to a close, but there was still enough light to obtain photographs of this interesting scene.

After leaving Nome we were again delayed by ice, but reached St, Michael early in the morning of June 5. Here I left the ship, and arrangements being made with the owner of a small open power- boat to carry me and my outfit to the mouth of the Yukon River, we left St. Michael Monday morning, June 8. We went through the " canal " (so called), a tide channel which separates St. Michael Island from the mainland. When a distance of about 25 miles had been

XO. 2 BIRDS OF ALASKA AND SIBERIA HERSEY 3

covered a storm arose which forced us to make camp, and I remained here until June ii. Although impatient of this delay, I found birds plentiful and the time was employed to good advantage. Eggs of the Pectoral Sandpiper and Long-billed Dowitcher, as well as several other species, were secured while here. At last we were able to resume our journey and left this point about seven o'clock at night and reached our destination at four o'clock the next morning.

Headquarters were established at the wireless station at the mouth of the river. There were no houses near ; the village of Kotlik, eight miles away, being the nearest settlement. The people of this village, mostly natives, were at this time at their summer fishing camps, some distance away. Excepting the men at the station, I saw almost no one during my stay here.

The country is low tundra, very little above sea level, flat and monotonous. It is dotted with little sloughs and ponds, and inter- sected by numerous creeks. The drier parts are covered with a grayish moss and a little grass and Jow creeping vines, but about the creeks the grass is heavier and greener. Small clumps of dwarf willows and alders are found in places. Scattered along the shore of the river are low mud flats, sometimes quite extensive. They are covered by water _at high tide and support a scant growth of stiff, coarse grass about 6 or 8 inches high. These flats make safe feed- ing grounds for Little Brown Cranes and geese, as it is impossible to approach them unobserved. So bare and level is the country that a photograph of the river, taken from the shore, shows the opposite bank as nothing but a straight black line, such as might be made across the print with a ruler and coarse stub pen.

The bulk of the breeding season was spent here, during which time many miles of tundra were tramped over, and with a boat I explored such of the flats in the river as I could reach. I found Pintails and several species of shore birds breeding abundantly. Gulls, Terns, and Jaegers were common, and among the willows and alders were Hoary and common Redpolls, and Alaska Yellow Wagtails. Willow Ptarmigan and Alaska Longspurs were common and widely distributed species in the region.

Several species found by Mr. Nelson at the time of his visit were not seen by me, or were present in very small numbers. As I was in the country a comparatively short time, I was not able to explore a large section, especially the great expanse of territory between the Yukon and Kuskoquim Rivers. Could I have done so it is possible that I would have found some of these species, although, personally,

4 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

I believe that many of the geese and other water birds that JNIr. Nelson found in such large numbers, now breed there very rarely or not at all.

Leaving the Yukon in July, I returned to Nome and rejoined the Bear, the remainder of the summer being spent in cruising along the coast. Stops were made at the following places on the dates indicated :

Golovin Bay, July 13 and 21.

St. Lawrence Island, July 24 and 25.

St. Lawrence Bay, Siberia, July 26.

Teller Reindeer Station, Alaska, July 28.

Cape Prince of Wales, July 29.

Deering, August i.

Chamisso Island, Kotzebue Sound, August i to 3.

Cape Espenberg, August 5.

Point Hope, August 7.

Cape Dyer, August 7 (at 9 p. m.).

Cape Lisburne, August 8.

Wainwright Inlet, August 10 to 20.

Point Franklin, August 18 and 20.

Barrow, August 21.

Golovin Bay, a narrow inlet surrounded by low hills, was a par- ticularly favorable spot for small land birds. Low willows were more in evidence here than at most places on the coast, and in them were found several species not noted elsewhere. St. Lawrence Island impressed me as a particularly promising locality and I would gladly have spent more time there. At two places on the north side of the island where landings were made, the land was high rolling tundra. At the northwestern part, a native village is located on a level gravel spit. Back of the village rise high cliffs in which Crested, Paroquet, and Least Auklets, Pallas's Murres, Pacific Kittiwakes, Glaucous Gulls, Horned Puffins, and perhaps Rodger's Fulmars, were breeding. The natives are superior to any I saw on the main- land. They are unusually clean, have substantially built houses and good boats. The excellent English spoken by many of them, and the evidence of their familiarity with the use of soap and water, reflect great credit on the government school and its teacher.

Near Deering, on the north coast of the Seward Peninsula, are several rocky chfifs where Pallas's Murres and Horned Puffins breed. Several Gyrfalcons were seen about these clififs and probably bred

NO. 2 BIRDS OF ALASKA AND SIBERIA HERSEY 5

here. Chamisso Island, and Puffin Island near by, contained the largest breeding" colonies of Horned Puffins that I saw anywhere in Alaska. On Puffin Island they were crowded together on the rocks and cliffs, and for every bird thus seen there was (presumably) a mate hidden away among the rocks or in the nesting burrows. Those that could not find room on Puffin Island had settled on Chamisso. Here there were about three thousand pairs of birds, but it was impossible to even guess how many were on Puffin Island. Besides the Puffins were many Pallas's Murres and about four hundred Pacific Kittiwakes.

One of the most interesting localities north of Kotzebue Sound was Point Hope. Behind a long gravel spit was a large lagoon, bordered by an extent of level tundra. At the farther end of the spit was a native village with a smaller lagoon. Birds of many kinds were seen everywhere. In the large lagoon were Old-squaws and various ducks; on the end of the spit rested a large flock of gulls, while Pallas's Murres were flying by outside. In the village, Snow Buntings, (Ruddy ?) Turnstones, Red-backed Sandpipers, and Alaska Longspur.s were much in evidence, and in the small lagoon Northern Phalaropes and a small flock of Sabine's Gulls were swimming, while many small sandpipers waded about the shore.

About Cape Dyer and Cape Lisburne the shore is more or less rocky, but north of this latter point it again becomes level tundra but little higher than sea level. North of Point Franklin it rises grad- ually, although still level, and in places attains an elevation of probably 30 or 40 feet.

The first ice was encountered on this northern trip as we passed Icy Cape, and when Wainwright Inlet was reached we were forced to stop. Here 10 days were spent, sometimes going ahead a few miles as an apparent " lead " opened through the ice, only to be com- pelled to retreat later. At last, on August 20, a favorable wind allowed us to go forward with some prospect of successfully reach- ing our destination, and the following evening we made Barrow. With the ice conditions so bad, it was unsafe to stay here any longer than necessary, so having landed the mail, and taken aboard several men who had been caught by the ice the previous season and obliged to winter there, we turned south. Among the men who came aboard at Barrow was Mr. W. S. Brooks, a member of the Polar Bear party. Mr. Brooks had been collecting for the JMuseum of Comparative Zoology. He had reached Barrow but a few days previous to our

6 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

arrival, having" travelled from the eastv^^ard on a small gasoline schooner bringing his collections with him.

As soon as the ship was out of the ice the course was changed to west and an effort made to reach Wrangel Island, where the ship- wrecked crew of the Karluk was known to have wintered. Fog, snow, and general bad weather prevented our reaching this point, and after lo days cruising we returned to Nome for more coal. On the way stops were made at two points near Cape Serdze, and at East Cape, Siberia. Cape Serdze is a high rocky point. Each side of the cape are stretches of low roUing tundra with several lagoons. East Cape is marked by a rocky precipice rising abruptly from the sea to a height of several hundred feet. Large colonies of Pallas's Murres, Horned Puffins, and Pacific Kittiwakes were breeding on the cliffs. At both capes are small native villages. From Nome the writer took passage for Seattle on the steamship Victoria.

During the season careful notes were recorded of all birds seen or taken. A daily list was made in which were entered the species seen and their abundance, the actual numbers present being set down whenever possible. A field journal was also kept wherein were entered accounts of the localities visited, the character of the country, flowers or animals seen, and any other items of interest not properly belonging to the daily list. In addition to the above, exten- sive notes were made on the habits of the various species. In the list which follows I have omitted these latter notes, as this material will be used by Mr. Bent in his forthcoming work.

In conclusion I desire to express my thanks for courtesies received. Acknowledgments are due the Revenue Cutter Service for permis- sion to accompany the Bear, and to Mr. H. J. Lee, U. S. Deputy Marshal at St, Michael, for assistance in securing transportation to the mouth of the Yukon River.

Especially do I appreciate the many kindnesses extended to me by Capt. C. S. Cochran and his officers while aboard the Bear. Everything possible was done to facilitate my work and to make the trip comfortable and pleasant. My thanks are also due Messrs. S. F. Rathbun and D. E. Brown for favors received while in Seattle.

Finally, I wish to express my indebtedness to Mr. A. C. Bent of Taunton, Massachusetts, through whose kindness and generosity I was enabled to make the journey here described.

NO. 2 BIRDS OF ALASKA AND SIBERIA HERSEY 7

LIST OF SPECIES

COLUMBUS AURITUS

Horned Grebe

Not common. The species was noted several times in the sloughs and creeks at the mouth of the Yukon. Near Deering three birds were seen together a short distance out from shore on August i. They allowed us to row quite near to them when they dove and swam away. This was the farthest north that the species was seen. No specimens were taken.

GAVIA ADAMSI

Yellow-billed Loon

Although constantly on the watch for this species, I saw no indication of its presence until we reached Kivalina, a few miles south of Point Hope. Here a native brought out a skin from the head of a bird which he had shot the previous week. Upon being questioned he stated that this species was rarely seen there. I was told a few breed about Point Hope, but it was not until we reached Wainwright Inlet that I found them in any numbers. Be- tween this place and Point Barrow a number were seen, in fact they were fairly common for a bird of this family. I was told a bird accompanied by a downy young had been shot at Wainwright shortly before I arrived.

GAVIA ARCTICA

Black-throated Loon

GAVIA PACIFICA

Pacific Loon

As no specimens were taken I am unable to determine the status of these two species in the territory. A few were seen about the Yukon and St. Michael, but were not tame enough to allow of approach to within gunshot distance. These were supposed to be the Black-throated Loon, as this is the species recorded by Nelson from this locality.

North of Bering Strait they were more abundant, the greatest number being seen between Wainwright Inlet and Point Barrow. Here the Pacific Loon only is supposed to occur. While trying to work our way slowly north, we surprised a bird, one day, in a little patch of open water of 4 or 5 yards in extent and entirely sur-

8 SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

rounded by ice cakes. The size of the patch of open water was not sufficient to allow him to take wing, and the surrounding ice kept him for a time, from escaping by diving. As we could not stop to pick him up, I did not shoot the bird, but watched him uhtil the move- ment of the ice at last opened up a lane of open water allowing him to swim out.

GAVIA STELLATA

Red-throated Loon

The most common Loon in Alaska. The heads and necks of this species are used by the Eskimos for a variety of fancy articles. The skin is removed and made into tobacco pouches or split open and spread out flat and then trimmed into square or oblong-shaped pieces which are combined with similar pieces from the various Eiders and made into small mats. These are often very neatly and smoothly made and are quite pretty.

LUNDA CIRRHATA

Tufted Puffin

From the Aleutian Islands southward, this is the commonest Puffin. In Unimak Pass they are particularly abundant as already stated. North of this locality the Horned Puffin takes the place of the Tufted, although a limited number were noted in all the Horned Puffin colonies as far north as East Cape, Siberia, and Kotzebue Sound.

FRATERCULA CORNICULATA

Horned Puffin

As we steamed through Unimak Pass large numbers of this species were met with for the first time. Although the total num- ber of individuals was large, it is probable that corniculata did not compose more than lO per cent of the thousands of Puffins that abound in these waters. Throughout Bering Sea, wherever there are steep, rocky cliffs or suitable islands, colonies of these curious birds may be found breeding. These colonies range in size from lOO or so pairs, as at St. Michael, to the great hordes found at Chamisso Island, where it would be difficult, if not impossible, to estimate their numbers.

North of East Cape, Siberia, and Chamisso Island the species was not seen, but I did not visit the large colony of Pallas's ^lurres at Cape Lisburne where Nelson reports it as also breeding.

NO. 2 BIRDS OF ALASKA AND SIBERIA HERSEY 9

The breeding season in these large colonies is greatly prolonged. At the date of our visit to Chamisso Island (August 2) many birds still had eggs only slightly incubated, while a larger number were bringing food to their young. On July 16 I found that most of the eggs in the colony at St. Michael were hatched, and the young could be heard in the crevices among the rocks, although they were beyond reach. At the colony at East Cape the young were still in the nests as late as August 29. In fact, no young were seen either on the wing or in the water up to the time I left the region (September 12), and none of the adults showed any indications of moult either of bill or plumage.

PHALERIS PSITTACULA

Paroquet Auklet

^THIA CRISTATELLA

Crested Auklet

JETHIA PUSILLA Least Auklet

Myriads of these interesting little birds were met with about all the larger islands of Bering Sea, but as very little work was done on the islands, I did not visit their breeding places. On St. Lawrence Island the natives catch numbers of them in nets. At the time of my visit nearly every family had a dozen or more. I picked out a number of the best birds, thus securing a good series of Crested and Least, but only found one Paroquet. It may be that this latter species is less plentiful here.

I was told that these birds were used regularly for food and were considered very nice and that their skins were used for clothing. Eighty-five skins of the Crested Auklet were said be to used in making a " parka " and a larger number of the Least are needed.

Auklets were plentiful about East Cape and the Diomede Islands, but were not seen north of Bering Strait.

SYNTHLIBORAMPHUS ANTIQUUS Ancient Murrelet

This species was met with only at Ketchikan where a specimen was secured. A number were seen.

lO SMITHSONIAN MISCELLANEOUS COLLECTIONS VOL. 66

CEPPHUS COLUMBA

Pigeon Guillemot

This species was not seen on the Alaskan coast porth of the Aleutians, but a few were met with on the Siberian side. At East Cape I estimated there were about 150 birds flying with the circling clouds of Pallas's Murres and Horned Puffins.

URIA TROILE CALIFORNICA

California Murre

URIA LOMVIA ARRA

Pallas's Murre

All along the coast from the